Does game theory provide us with a justification for banning doping?
Some argue for a ban on doping on the basis of an appeal to nature; such arguments typically meet with fierce criticism.
In an article published online first this week in the Journal of Medical Ethics, University of Munich theologian and bioethicist Christof Breitsameter presents a different argument– he draws on game theory and claims about the behaviour of rational agents. He writes:
“Ceteris paribus, athletes will always prefer a situation that presents no health risk to a situation in which they face a threat to their health. They will therefore consent to a doping ban on the condition that it is ensured that all parties are bound to this rule, so that anyone complying with the rules will not be afraid of losing the competition as a result. For even if we condoned self-harm, it could still be argued plausibly that the individual should not suffer more disadvantages than absolutely necessary for the sake of gaining an advantage over others.”
Breitsameter argues that even minor health risks would not be worth taking for a rational agent:
“Of course, it is possible to plead for a restricted approval of doping measures with acceptable risk. But even taking minor risks would not seem sensible under the condition that all participants without exception adhere to the same conditions when there is the option to renounce the (avoidable) risks.”
Game theory has been applied to the doping issue before, but with a very different conclusion. In 2008 article in the Scientific American, essayist Michael Shermer argued that it would be eminently rational for professional cyclists to dope.
Rio casino online game theory
If you are a regular gambler at Las Vegas casinos, then you know just how much fun the Rio Hotel and Casino can be, but it is not just the gambling that keeps you coming back. The place has so much to offer when it comes to other activities such as, the many concerts held at the hotel, the many restaurants, the beach club, the bistro’s, the bar and even the club lounge. There are even performances by some of the top singers and musicians at the Rio Casino. You can get a bit tipsy here and listen to the music while you watch the performers entertain the crowd.
Despite the fact that Rio is a legal casino and is not included in the gamstop lists, alas, not all players can visit it, due to the fact that they have to spend their time and money to get into it. For such gamblers, the best option would be to use non gamestop casinos to enjoy slots or poker.
The entertainment doesn’t stop with entertainment though, the hotel also offers plenty of other activities for those who wish to get out and about in the surrounding areas. The Rio Casino is also home to the Bellagio casino, which have over 70 slot machines, enough to keep you busy, and an interactive game room. There are also a game room and game library as well as the Beach Club and Nightclub which include a night club, dance club, karaoke bar, large outdoor terrace and an outdoor pool and restaurant. All these are great ways to spend time out of the hotel. While you are at the Rio Casino, you can take the Jacuzzi down to try the exciting water activity that is going on at the Barcelo Dazzle water park. This will also help you unwind after a hard day of gambling.
So if you want to enjoy yourself, but don’t want to go out and play the Vegas roulette machine, the Rio Hotel and Casino has something for everyone. In fact, the game room and all the other activities at the Rio Casino Las Vegas are designed to keep all types of gamblers coming back again. While you are at the Rio Casino, you can even try one of the live roulette games to see if you like the fun.
Breitsameter’s argument remains at a level of abstraction and assumes for argument’s sake that doping is (or at least can be) thoroughly regulated.
Doping and Rio Olympic game theory
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